Absorption chiller

A chiller using heat to supply cooling. There are many different types of absorption chillers, but they all work on a similar principle. In a low pressure system an absorption fluid is evaporated, removing heat from the chilled water. A heat source such as steam, exhaust gas or hot water is used to regenerate the absorption solution.

Bildresultat för absorption chiller

Figure from https://goldman.com.au/energy/company-news/how-does-an-absorption-chiller-work/

Absorption heat pump

An absorption heat pump is an air-source heat pump driven not by electricity, but by a heat source such as solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water.

Bildresultat för absorption heat pump

Figure from https://blog.uwgb.edu/chem320c/absorption-heat-pump/

Artificial Neural Network (ANN)

Artificial neural networks (ANN)  are computing systems that are inspired by, but not identical to, biological neural networks that constitute animal brains. Such systems “learn” to perform tasks by considering examples, generally without being programmed with task-specific rules.

Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM)

Building Research Establishment’s (BRE) Environmental Assessment Method, a best practice standard for the environmental performance of buildings through design, specification, construction and operation.

BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method) is a sustainability assessment method that is used to masterplan projects, infrastructure and buildings. Launched in 1990, by the Building Research Establishment (BRE) it sets standards for the environmental performance of buildings through the design, specification, construction and operation phases and can be applied to new developments or refurbishment schemes.

Coefficient of Performance (COP)

Coefficient of Performance is a metric for heat pumps. Defined as the ratio of the heating or cooling provided by the heat pump to the work consumed by the heat pump.

The Context and Critical Conditions tool (CCC)

The tool Context and Critical Conditions (CCC) may be of help to sort the context in relation to time and system levels, and also to focus on what the critical contextual conditions are for the change.

Demand Response (DR)

Demand response is a change in the power consumption of an electric utility customer to better match the demand for power with the supply.

District cooling (DC)

System for distribution of cooling in a district or city.

District heating (DH)

System for distribution of heating in a district or city.

Energy Audit

An energy audit is an inspection survey and an analysis of energy flows for energy conservation in a building. It may include a process or system to reduce the amount of energy input into the system without negatively affecting the output.

Energy Performance Building Directive (EPBD)

The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) is the European Union’s’s main legislative instrument aiming to promote the improvement of the energy performance of buildings within the Community. It was inspired by the Kyoto Protocol which commits the EU and all its parties by setting binding emission reduction targets.

Energy Potential Mapping (EPM)

The method of Energy potential mapping (EPM) aims to visualise the energy potentials and demands by making information of quantity, quality and location of demand and supply accessible. The aspect of quality specifically applies to heat and cold.

The Energy Technology Systems Analysis Program (ETSAP)

The Energy Technology Systems Analysis Program (ETSAP) is one of the longest running Technology Collaboration Programme of the International Energy Agency (IEA). ETSAP currently has as contracting parties 20 countries, the European Commission and two private sector sponsors.

Environment protection agency (EPA)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.

Heat exchanger

Heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between one or more fluids.

Heat pump

A heat pump is a device that transfers heat energy from a source of heat to a heat sink

High-Temperature District Cooling (HTDC)

High-temperature district cooling (HTDC) is district cooling systems operating at temperatures just below the limit set by comfort temperature requirements.

Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort. Its goal is to provide thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality. HVAC system design is a subdiscipline of mechanical engineering, based on the principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer.


Key Performance Indicator (KPI)

Key Performance Indicators (KPI) evaluate the success of an organization or of a particular activity (such as projects, programs, products and other initiatives) in which it engages (e.g. COP, greenhouse gases emissons).

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is one of the most popular green building certification programs used worldwide. Developed by the non-profit U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) it includes a set of rating systems for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green buildings, homes, and neighborhoods that aims to help building owners and operators be environmentally responsible and use resources efficiently.

Low-Temperature District Heating (LTDH)

Low-Temperature District Heating. District heating systems operating at temperatures at or just above the limit set by domestic hot water temperature requirements.

Net Present Value (NPV)

The net present value (NPV) is the sum of the present values of the assets and cash flows (incoming and outgoing benefits or cost cash flows) over a period of time.


Radiators are heat exchangers used to transfer thermal energy from one medium to another for the purpose of cooling and heating.


A refrigerant is a substance or mixture, usually a fluid, used in a heat pump and refrigeration cycle. In most cycles it undergoes phase transitions from a liquid to a gas and back again.

Return temperature

Temperature in district heating or cooling distribution back from consumers to production facilities

Sensitivity analysis (SA)

Sensitivity analysis (SA) is the study of how the variation in the output of a system can be quantitatively apportioned to parameter variations.

Supply temperature

Temperature in district heating or cooling distribution from production facilities to consumers.

Thermal Energy Storage (TES)

Thermal Energy Storage (TES) is achieved with widely differing technologies. Depending on the specific technology, it allows excess thermal energy to be stored and used hours, days, or months later, at scales ranging from the individual process, building, multiuser-building, district, town, or region.


The International Energy Agency (IEA)

The IEA works to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for its 30 member countries and beyond. The mission of IEA is guided by four main areas of focus: energy security, economic development, environmental awareness and engagement worldwide.


Underground Thermal Energy Storage (UTES)

Underground thermal energy storage (UTES), in which the storage medium may be geological strata ranging from earth or sand to solid bedrock, or aquifers.

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